Type 2 Diabetes, Fatty Liver, Sugar, Keto and Fasting  

Type 2 Diabetes & Insulin

Type 2 diabetes can be summed up as too much sugar in the body, rather than just blood sugar that’s too high. This happens USUALLY by consuming too much sugar and carbohydrates too often and this ends up with the body having no where to put the extra sugar that is eaten. A bit like trying to stuff more clothes in a suitcase that is already full, so the clothes spill out, a bit like the sugar spilling out into the blood, giving high blood sugar which then leads to insulin resistance where the body ‘ignores insulin’.

Insulin lowers blood sugar by moving it into different cells, but if the cells are already full of sugar they can’t take anymore sugar, like trying to get on the tube in London when its packed.

type 2 diabetes easy explanation

The liver can make this extra sugar into fat which can be stored on the body or in the liver (non alcoholic fatty liver). This means a lot of people with fatty liver which often comes with insulin resistant should be cutting out sugar and carbs, rather than  good fats.

Pre-diabets, type 2 diabetes and fatty liver can be ‘reversed’ by fasting, ketogenic diet or just calorie restriction as it will force the body to use up its sugar supply and help with insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity is where the body responds properly to insulin, rather than ignoring it.

When insulin and sugar levels are high in the body, mTOR is activated and this is the main growth pathway in the body, so it will cause all cells to grow, including cancer cells. mTOR is not bad at all if it is not on all the time, but if mTOR is on all the time and the person is in ‘growth and storage’ mode all day then this makes a favourable environment for cancer to grow in. Cancer is complicated and it is not just about mTOR, sugar and insulin but this is why some people choose to fast, limit calories or sugar for health reasons.

People can also get insulin resistant / Type 2 diabetic due to stress, lack of exercise prolonged poor sleep and lack of/loss of muscle mass so it is not diet alone.

prevent type 2 diabetes

Plant molecules or neutraceuticals

As type 2 diabetes is multi faceted there are certain plant molecules that can help and have other benefits even if you don’t have insulin resistance as long as they are used in conjunction with other lifestyle changes.

Berberine  can modulate autophagy in adipose tissue to help prevent weight gain  and metabolic syndrome (pre diabetes) as well as protect against atherosclerosis (blocked arteries) . Berberine activates AMPK  inhibits mTOR and upregulates PPARγexpression. Berberine helps regulate glucose metabolism by increasing insulin sensitivity. Berberine also increases production of new mitochondria, which are what use fat and glucose in the body to make energy.

Metformin also activates AMPK and inhibits mTOR, which is why some biohackers use it for its potential anti-ageing and anti-cancer effects. Metformin works to inhibit AMPK and lower blood sugar  by slightly different mechanism to berberine.

Metformin has some gut related side effects like diarrhoea and  wind as well as possibly lowering B12 levels, where as berberine can help with some gut issues. Berberine has bad bioavailability so better used in liposomal form.

Cinnamon activates AMPK which then activates glucose utilisation and improves fat burning (if in a calorie deficit or in ketosis). Cinnamon improves metabolism by lowering fasting blood glucose levels and Hemoglobin HBA1c, a measure of average blood glucose levels over time. Cinnamon contains a key bioactive compound, trans-cinnamic aldehyde, which decreases bacterial survival by activating autophagy in microbial invaders, which can help ward off infections.

Milk Thistle is well-known for its liver-protective properties and Silibinin &  silybin from milk thistle inhibit mTOR  Silibinin activates AMPK, and can restore NAD+ levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver as fatty liver and type 2 diabetes come together most of the time.


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